Coolant 1 – What is anti-freeze? Anti-freeze is a glycol-based concentrated liquid that primarily prevents an engine coolant from freezing in particularly low temperatures. It is added to and diluted by an engine’s coolant (water) according to manufacturer guidelines. However, anti-freeze nowadays does a lot more, helping prevent scale build-up and corrosion in the engine and improving heat transfer from the hot engine to the coolant. 2 – What is coolant? Simply put, the coolant is the liquid that runs through an engine to keep it within its correct operating temperature range. The vast majority of modern cars use liquid cooling to maintain optimum engine temperature. The coolant is vital to an engine’s operation and long-term health. If you’re buying antifreeze/coolant in a store or online, it’s important to know the difference between the two. A product labelled coolant will be a pre-mixed, ready to use the solution of Antifreeze and water that you can pour straight into the cooling system. A product labelled antifreeze will be a concentrated solution, designed to be diluted with water before you add it to your cooling system. 3 – How does coolant work? The cooling system is a closed loop where the coolant is pumped through various small channels in the engine block and cylinder head, removing heat from the metal, before passing through a radiator. Air motion through this radiator (from the car moving or a supplementary fan) removes heat from the coolant as it passes through so it is ready to cool the engine again on the next pass. A thermostat controls the flow through the engine and the latest engines vary the cooling depending on conditions to enhance efficiency. 4 – Isn’t coolant just water? For the most part yes, though each car maker has its own set of guidelines, which you should strictly adhere to, in terms of coolant specification and anti-freeze concentration. It’s fine to top up the coolant with water when needs be, though larger top-ups and flush-outs should be done with the recommended amounts of coolant and anti-freeze. 5 – Should I worry about sludge in the coolant? Not immediately, no. If the engine’s temperature is being controlled satisfactorily then this probably means nothing more than scale build up or the use of hard water. To ensure the coolant system is working to maximum efficiency it is advised to flush it out in this situation with a suitable cleaning agent, then refill with the recommended coolant and anti-freeze levels. If in a hard water area it’s worth investing in using distilled or deionised water. 6 – How much anti-freeze do I add? Again, the car manufacturers’ guidelines are the best way to go. If in doubt contact your dealer. 7 – What can I do about an overheating engine? If your temperature gauge is in the red or the coolant warning light is illuminated then you really do need to stop the car as soon as is safe, pull in and turn off the engine. First and foremost, the coolant level needs to be checked, but be very very careful, as it will be under pressure and incredibly hot. It’s not advised to open the radiator cap at this stage, but opening the bonnet (cautiously to avoid any steam) is not a bad idea. Allow the engine to cool before attempting to top up the coolant system and even then you may need the assistance of a mechanic to recover the vehicle and fix it. It’s not advised to drive the car if the temperature cannot be controlled, as it could lead to complete engine failure. Safety: You may not be aware but Ethylene glycol (the main ingredient in most antifreeze/coolant products) is extremely poisonous. If swallowed It will cause severe damage to your heart, kidneys and brain and it can even kill you! So it goes without saying, you need to be careful when handling it, especially around young children and animals. Animals are attracted to the smell of the antifreeze and children, most likely to the colour. A bittering agent is added to antifreeze to try and prevent human/animal consumption but the best course of action is to make sure antifreeze is stored in a safe place, any spills are cleaned up immediately and it is disposed of responsibly. When cleaning up antifreeze you need to wear gloves because ethylene glycol can cause damage to internal organs through skin absorption. Inhalation of the fumes can also cause dizziness. There is a new type of antifreeze available that contains PROPYLENE GLYCOL. Propylene glycol is much less toxic than ethylene glycol. An animal would have to consume a lot more of this type of antifreeze, a quantity that is unlikely to be available, to get sick or to die. The bottle’s label should tell you what is type of antifreeze it is.